Introducing Evidence at Trial: A British Columbia Handbook – Fourth Edition

Practice Point

How to handle evidence like seasoned counsel

This publication is essential for: all litigators looking for information on evidentiary matters.

Knowing the rules of evidence and a careful refresher before each trial is essential to a litigator’s success. Rather than concentrating on theory, Introducing Evidence at Trial is your resource for dealing with evidentiary procedure in civil or criminal trials in BC. Written and reviewed by esteemed judges and litigators, this portable handbook includes detailed discussion of each type of evidence or procedure accompanied by practice pointers, checklists of important considerations, and model scripts.

With this resource, you will be able to:

  • improve your ability in introducing and controlling evidence at trial
  • spot problems with evidentiary proof you might otherwise overlook in your or opposing counsel’s case
  • quickly access evidentiary rules during trial to manage unexpected evidence or witness behavior

Buy your copy and increase your courtroom capabilities today!


  • an overview chapter of basic evidentiary principles
  • concise statements of legal principles
  • practice tips for counsel, sample scripts, and checklists
  • further reading in many chapters for other helpful resources
  • Canada Evidence Act and British Columbia Evidence Act for ready access to key sections
  • useful finding tools, including extensive cross-referencing, tables of cases, statutes, and references, and an index
  • online access to electronic version with hyperlinks to primary law

Highlights of the fourth edition

  • all content now current to September 1, 2020
  • new chapters covering Character Evidence and Electronic Evidence
  • significant structural revisions to several chapters, including Wiretap Evidence, Subpoenas, Certificate Evidence, and Exclusion of Evidence
  • new discussion on, among others, limitations on the admissibility of admissions, the future of interpreter practice based
  • on emerging technology, circumstances where a case may be reopened prior to the conclusion of trial to adduce further evidence, and the role of the courts in changing “courtroom culture”
  • new commentary and references added, covering over 500 cases from all levels of court

Editorial Board

Mary T. Ainslie, KC — Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Vancouver
Robert S. Anderson, KC — Farris LLP, Vancouver
Nikos Harris, KC — Peter A. Allard School of Law, UBC/Peck and Company, Vancouver
The Honourable Madam Justice Karen A. Horsman — Supreme Court of BC, Vancouver
The Honourable Madam Judge Cassandra Malfair — Provincial Court of BC, Prince George
Marilyn E. Sandford, QC — Ritchie Sandford McGowan Barristers, Vancouver
The Honourable Mr. Justice Peter M. Willcock — BC Court of Appeal, Vancouver


Alisia K. Adams — Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Vancouver
The Honourable Madam Justice Wendy A. Baker — Supreme Court of BC, Vancouver
The Honourable Mr. Justice Michael J. Brundrett — Supreme Court of BC, Vancouver
Morgan L. Camley — Dentons Canada LLP, Vancouver
Ryan Carrier — Crown Counsel—Public Prosecution Service of Canada, Vancouver
Lauren Chu — Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Vancouver
The Honourable Madam Justice M. Joyce DeWitt-Van Oosten — BC Court of Appeal, Vancouver
Janet A.M. Dickie — Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Surrey
Joseph Doyle, KC — Johnson Doyle Nelson & Anderson, Vancouver
Susanne E. Elliott — Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Vancouver
Keith Evans — BC Ministry of Attorney General, Vancouver
Bryan E. Fitzpatrick — Pushor Mitchell LLP, Kelowna
Richard S. Fowler, KC — Fowler and Blok Criminal Defence Lawyers, Vancouver
Catherine George — Farris LLP, Vancouver
Michael Gianacopoulos — Farris LLP, Vancouver
Spencer Gillespie — Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Vancouver
Brook J. Greenberg — Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP, Vancouver
John D. Hempstead — Deputy Regional Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Prince George
Annie C. Kaderly — Aaron Gordon Daykin Nordlinger LLP, Vancouver
James C. MacInnis, KC — Nathanson Schachter & Thompson LLP, Vancouver
The Honourable Madam Justice Miriam A. Maisonville — Supreme Court of BC, Vancouver
Lindsay A. McGivern — Pacific Medical Law, Vancouver
Paul T. McGivern, KC — Pacific Medical Law, Vancouver
John R. Neal — Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Vancouver
Caroline E. Richardson — Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Vancouver
Matthew G. Scott — Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Vancouver
Daniel J. Song — Pringle Chivers Sparks Teskey, Vancouver
K. Michael Stephens — Hunter Litigation Chambers, Vancouver
Kayla K. Strong — Nathanson Schachter & Thompson LLP, Vancouver
Alix Tolliday — Ritchie Sandford McGowan Barristers, Vancouver
John Walker — Crown Counsel—Public Prosecution Service of Canada, Vancouver
Mark Wolf — Crown Counsel—BC Prosecution Service, Vancouver


1. The Basic Concepts of the Law of Evidence

2. Admissions Dispensing with Proof

3. Adverse/Hostile Witnessesl

4. Adverse Inferences

5. Certificate Evidence

6. Child Witnesses

7. Collateral Facts Rule

8. Confessions and Admissions of Accused Persons

9. Documentary Evidence

10. Hearsay Evidence

11. Interpreters

12. Judicial Notice

13. Opinion Evidence

14. Post-occurrence or Post-offence Conduct Evidence

15. Prior Convictions

16. Privilege as an Evidentiary Rule

17. Real and Demonstrative Evidence

18. Reply Evidence

19. Similar Fact Evidence

20. Statements—General Overview

21. Statements—Prior Consistent

22. Statements—Prior Identification

23. Statements—Prior Inconsistent

24. Statements—Refreshing Memory and Past Recollection Recorded

25. Subpoenas

26. Views in a Trial

27. Voir Dires

28. Wiretap Evidence

29. Exclusion of Evidence

30. Character Evidence

31. Electronic Evidence

Case Table
Statutes and Related Material Table

“The contributing authors are experienced and knowledgeable trial counsel, who have analyzed leading case authority and shared practical tips on introducing evidence in criminal and civil trials in BC.”

~ Robert S. Anderson, KC, Mary T. Ainslie, KC, and Marilyn E. Sandford, KC

Robert S. Anderson, KC, Mary T. Ainslie, KC, and Marilyn E. Sandford, KC